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Euromaidan Events and Human Rights

Euromaidan Events and Human Rights[1]

Causes of Euromaidan Protest Movement

After V. Yanukovych has been elected the President of Ukraine in February 2010, the ruling upper circles promptly started building a centralised power vertical. Reinforcement of the authoritarian rule was accompanied with deterioration of the social and economic situation and increase in the citizens’ impoverishment. It led to loss of trust to the main governmental institutions, dissatisfaction and protests of people against the background of unprecedented corruption.

It was no coincidence that the following year human rights defence organisations observed commencement of systematic governmental attacks against the rights and fundamental liberties[2] as well as return of the dishonourable practice of political repressions[3] whose victims were oppositional politicians, journalists, human rights defenders, civil activists, and active youth.

Increasing influence of Russia onto the most important Ukrainian governmental decisions should be emphasised. Several months before Euromaidan Russia had applied various methods to suspend the European integration process, including the so called “trade wars”. People’s deputies from the ruling Party of Regions submitted into the Ukrainian parliament the draft laws which were equivalent to the Russian ones and aimed at restricting fundamental rights and liberties, in particular, the draft anti-extremism law. That was why the unexpected governmental decision dated November 21, 2013 to “suspend” the process of signing the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union which was supposed to be concluded at the end of November 2013 was perceived as rejection from European integration and start of movement towards the Customs Union.

Description of the Protesters Repression System
Organised by the Government

During the entire period of Euromaidan from November 2013 to February 2014 the protesters were repressed by the authoritarian rule of President of Ukraine V. Yanukovych by various means. Murders were the most merciless of them, but they also included numerous cases of property destruction, beating, tortures[4], kidnapping[5], illegal arrests[6], driver’s license revocation[7], commencement of framed-up administrative and criminal proceedings[8], custodial placement etc.[9]. Repressions also comprised different governmental actions aimed at restricting freedom of speech and mass media, spreading unauthentic information for the purpose of bringing discredit on the protests, regular bans of peaceful meetings in different regions, illegal application of force by law enforcement bodies.

These crimes resulted in at least 114 people being murdered, 94 of whom were Euromaidan activists, imprisonment of at least several hundreds of people, physical injuries of more than a thousand of activists. 27 protesters are still missing[10]. Numerous cases of illegal detention and arrests of people, kidnapping of protesters, tortures and harsh treatment by the law enforcement bodies and affiliated criminal groups were recorded. Those crimes were systematic, well organised and committed within a short period of time. They are evidence by a wide range of video and photo materials showing attacks against peaceful protesters, which confirms criminals’ awareness of their total impunity.

In the aggregate, all these crimes were a part of the large-scale and systematic governmental attack against peaceful civil people aimed at scaring people and suppress peaceful protests. That was conscious governmental policy carried out by the authoritarian rule for three months at the substantial territory of the country by means of representatives of various state bodies and criminal groups affiliated with the law enforcement bodies. Actually, repression of Euromaidan was the climax of the repressive system destroying any views different from the pro-governmental one which had been built in the previous years.

The target object of large-scale and systematic attacks were civilians. Crimes were not aimed at randomly selected people; there was a consecutive campaign of repressing actual and supposed protesters in Kyiv and regions. It is worth saying that protesters were of different age, sex, profession, financial standing, social background, place of residence, regional beliefs, ideological views etc. Yet, all of them were united by an actual or attributed support of the protest movement and disagreement with the authoritarian rule headed by V. Yanukovych.

Therefore, any person who, in opinion of the governmental representatives, participated in or supported Euromaidan (donated money, brought things and medicines, helped the injured, provided legal assistance etc.) could be attacked. Thus, the attack was clearly aimed at the group of citizens on grounds of their political views which, in that case, constituted disagreement with the activity of the authoritarian rule.

It should be noted that during the entire period of the protest governmental representatives kept trying to provoke protesters for illegal violent acts which were often engineered by law enforcement officers themselves[11]. In most cases such provocations failed. Euromaidan leaders and activists themselves kept emphasising the peaceful nature of the protests and condemned violence.

The political decision to suppress the protest movement taken by the ex-government of the state is confirmed by coordination of criminal acts among different governmental bodies, collective mobilisation of law enforcement bodies and their affiliated criminal groups as well as a variety of forms and methods applied for attacking. Moreover, it is demonstrated by the lack attempts of authorities to prevent crimes from being committed.

In addition to using law enforcement bodies and the judicial system to repress protesters, the government created, organised, supported, and financed paramilitary groups (so called “titushky”) for the purpose of scaring and attacking protesters, destroying their property and provoking them[12].

As opposed to the protest movement, the government created so called “antimaidans”. The main meeting to support the current authoritarian rule in Kyiv was actually held in the governmental quarter next to the walls of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and guarded by the law enforcement bodies[13]. Antimaidan was obviously an artificial event coordinated by governmental structures[14] — same-type military tents, mobile kitchen trailers, statements of many participants about payment for their presence, centralised transfer of people to Antimaidan. The protesters held flags of the pro-governmental Party of Regions and the Communist Party of Ukraine. Despite evidently illegal actions of these protesters, such as destruction of Mariinskyi Park, consumption of alcohol drinks in public places, hooliganism, etc., law enforcement officers never tried to cease their illegal actions[15].

Individual attention shall be drawn to the information campaign organised by the government to bring discredit on the peaceful protest and held on government-controlled television channels and printed mass media. In order to justify violence, speeches of the highest officials of the country and official statements of governmental bodies contained used negative connotations to define the protest and its participants. In particular, Prime-Minister M. Azarov claimed that seizure of the buildings at Maidan was carried out by extremist groups[16], and Minister of Internal Affairs V. Zakharchenko often called protesters extremists[17], radicals[18]. The respective rhetoric was typical of statements of the main pro-governmental party[19].

Discrimination Decisions of the State Aimed
at Suppressing the Protests

The governmental policy aimed at suppressing the peaceful protest can also be traced at the level of governmental decisions taken at that period of time. The first law on amnesty was passed on December 19, 2013 in order to release people who had been illegally detained and beaten on December 01. Yet, its provisions also allowed discharging the law enforcement officers from criminal liability for the illegal violent acts they had committed.

The so called “dictatorship laws”[20] dated January 16 contained the provisions which introduced criminal liability for slander and extremism[21], depriving journalists of an opportunity to criticise the government, banned movement of motor columns, restricting opportunities to hold peaceful Automaidan campaigns, established new conditions for receiving the license to provide access to the Internet, introduced the notion of “an international agent”, in fact creating tools to restrict activity of and dissolve any non-governmental organisation.

The law on amnesty dated January 29, 2014 was called “the law on hostages”. It stipulated that illegally detained and affected activists were to be released only from the day following publication of the statement of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine on participants of mass campaigns actually vacating streets and administrative buildings on the official web-site. The law also stated that if such actions were not performed within 15 days after it had come into effect, the opportunity to release the detained protesters would be lost.

Travesty of justice was widely used as a tool to ban peaceful meetings in Kyiv and regions. According to the Unified State Register of Court Decisions, during the period from November 30, 2013 til February 22, 2014 county administrative courts banned (or otherwise restricted) at least 77 peaceful meetings all over Ukraine. In comparison with the equivalent period of time it can be concluded that the amount of judicial restraints increased more than three times.

Main Events in Kyiv in the Course of Euromaidan

On November 21, 2013 at approximately 10:00 p.m. the first spontaneous campaign organised by means of social media started in Kyiv at Maidan Nezalezhnosti. The campaign participants demanded the government to cancel its decision and sign the Association Agreement at the EU summit in Vilnius.

After November 21, 2013 termless peaceful meetings started all over Ukraine to support European integration, so called local “Euromaidans”, accompanied by meetings of the Ukrainian diaspora in many countries.

Dispersing Maidan on November 30

A few days before commencement of the meeting of the OSCE Ministerial Council in Kyiv, in the night from November 29 to November 30, 2013 the law enforcement bodies dispersed the “Students’ Maidan”, the termless peaceful meeting in support of European integration. According to the official version, it was explained by the need to clear the square for the New Year tree to be installed. It happened at approximately 04:00 a.m. when there were few people left at the square (according to different estimates, from 200 to 400 people), mostly youth and students, some of whom were sleeping. During the forceful disperse of the peaceful meeting the militia demonstratively applied excessive violence and special operational gear. The people who were not even resisting were beaten regardless of their age and sex, beaten with truncheons, legs, and chased for about 600 meters up to St. Michael’s Cathedral where the beaten protesters could hide[22].

As a result of the disperse, 34 people were detained, administrative protocols were drawn regarding 29 of them, and only pursuant to the official data 71 people, three of whom were journalists, were provided with medical aid. According to Reuters Agency, their operator and photographer were also affected by the spontaneous and illegal actions of the militia[23].

In the morning on November 30, 2013 people started voluntarily gathering in the square next to St. Michael’s Cathedral. Being one of the most powerful non-governmental initiatives, Euromaidan SOS, commenced its operation for the purpose of providing free legal assistance to protesters[24].

Events on December 01 in Bankova Street

The people were outraged with the violent disperse of the Students’ Maidan and started the mass peaceful protest campaign on December 1, 2013 in Kyiv. The amount of protesters reached 500 thousand people according to different estimates. They occupied the central part of Kyiv: Maidan, adjacent streets, roads, and stopped to hold the peaceful protest.

Approximately two thousand protesters went up to Bankova Street. There was power struggle initiated by the group of 20-60 people in semi-military clothes with covered faces who were trying to use the road grader to break the guarding chain consisting of 150 conscript soldiers of internal military forces in order to get to the Presidential Administration[25]. Those unknown people turned out to be armed with the chain, fittings, fires, incendiary mixture, and tear gas. Majority of protesters (more than 800–1500 people) there did not participate in the power struggle. Moreover, a part of them created a live chain to protect young soldiers[26]. The public activist O. Solontai, cultural figure O. Polozhynskyi and future president P. Poroshenko did their best to stop the road grader and called people to avoid provocations. All that time combatants of the special police force “Berkut” were standing behind the backs of the soldiers in a distance. Everybody present was shocked with the fact that the law enforcement officers made no attempts to stop the attackers.

The special police force “Berkut” and internal military forces suddenly started attacking[27] and violently beating[28] everybody indiscriminately[29], including accidental passers-by and journalists[30] who had been taken into a tight circle. Then nine accidental people were detained and beaten on the ground for several hours in the internal yard[31], which was video-recorded[32]. Those very people known as “Bankova prisoners” were later accused of having organised mass riots and taken into custody for two months within the framework of the criminal proceedings commenced against them.

After that the termless protest campaign started in Kyiv with traditional weekly people’s assemblies on Sundays attended by from several hundred thousand up to one million people. One more efficient form of non-violent protest, the informal Automaidan movement, was created at the same period of time.

Attempt to Disperse Maidan in the Night from December 10 to December 11

In the night from December 10 to December 11 the internal military forces and special police force “Berkut” made one more attempt to disperse Maidan forcefully, having blocked the exit from the central metro stations. They kept pressing and beating protesters, most of whom did not even resist, with truncheons until the early morning. Law enforcement officers pulled out people from the crowd and escorted them behind the line of attack where they were randomly beaten by the special police force “Berkut”. Disperse of Maidan was prevented owing to 50 thousand people who spontaneously started coming to the square at night by all possible means of transport. According to the official data, at least 49 people, including 11 law enforcement officers, were injured as a result of the special police force attack.

After the attempt to disperse Euromaidan had failed, the government initiated negotiations with the oppositional leaders, wrongly assuming that they were the ones coordinating the protest. Those negotiations resulted in passing the so called law on amnesty as of December 19, 2013.

Events on December 19–22 in Hrushevskoho Street

On January 16, 2014 the parliament passed the so called “dictatorship” laws which de facto criminalised any forms of peaceful protests in breach of the established voting procedure[33]. Moreover, the second law on amnesty whose provisions covered not only the protesters, but also the law enforcement officers that had applied illegal violence to Euromaidan protesters was passed.

In the morning on January 19 another multi-thousand People’s Assembly was held at Maidan. The participants demanded to cancel the dictatorship laws dated January 16. Some people went towards the parliament building along Hrushevskoho Street. There, right next to the entrance to the Dynamo stadium peaceful protesters faced the road blocked with trucks and buses by the special police force “Berkut” and soldiers of internal military forces.

At about 03:00 p.m. on January 19 clashes started.[34] Many protesters were wounded and injured, the bus of “Berkut” was set on fire, and the combatants of this special police force were showered with stones and petards. The special police force applied operational gear, tear gas and even water canon although the temperature was –8 °C[35].

While attacking, the combatants of the special police force “Berkut” were violently beating all the protesters, even the ones who were not participating in the clashes[36], but had not managed to retreat. They kept demonstratively beating the people who were lying on the ground, including the ones who had climbed the arc next to the stadium entrance, in front of thousands of people. They pushed one of them, who was not even moving, from the height of more than 10 m[37]. According to the official data only, medical aid was provided to at least 24 people injured as a result of the clashes, three of them being taken to hospital. At the same time, the overwhelming majority of protesters was afraid to go to medical institutions due to the threat of arrest, and went to volunteer mobile hospitals and medical aid posts. All the protesters who had been arrested on that and the following days were accused of having organised mass riots and opposed to the law enforcement officers without regard to the fact whether they did oppose.

On January 22 there were first victims who died of firearms applied by the unknown legal enforcement officers: twenty-year-old Serhii Nihoian[38] died of bullet wounds shot at his neck and head. Also, the citizen of Belarus, Mykhailo Zhyznevskyi died, being wounded right into the heart[39]. In the course of the attack Roman Senyk was wounded into the lungs, and his arm was later dismembered. The man died in hospital unconscious on January 25[40].

On January 19–22 at least 42 journalists were injured with traumatic weapons and special operational gear[41]. Taking into consideration the nature of wounds: into eyes and heads, law enforcement officers aimed fire at the people in orange vests and hard hats with the writing “Press”[42]. Besides, approximately 30 medical workers were injured: “Berkut” destroyed the medical aid post established in the Parliamentary Library in Hrushevskoho Street. After that journalists refused to wear vests with the writing “Press”, and the Red Cross published a statement on impermissibility of applying weapons against medical workers with the respective marking[43].

The events in Hrushevskoho Street caused incredible public reaction and activated protest movement in different regions of Ukraine. As of January 27, 2014 unarmed protesters had occupied 11 regional state administrations, in five regions their attempts had resulted in people being beaten and dispersed, and in four other regions mass protest campaigns had been held.

During that period criminal groups called “titushky” which coordinated their activity with the law enforcement bodies got active in Kyiv[44]. They injured people in different districts of the city, destroyed cars and organised provocations. As the law enforcement bodies had refused to perform their duties and protect public order, ordinary people assumed an obligation to patrol the city.

In the course of one of such raids the group of Automaidan participants that had been called to protect the hospital from “titushky” got into the trap of the special police force “Berkut”. The law enforcement officers pulled the people out from cars, beat them violently regardless of their age and sex, and destroyed their vehicles. They kept beating the detained protesters in the bus, and some of them were driven to the park, made to kneel, undressed in freezing temperatures, and tortured. Then all the detained protesters were accused of having organised mass riots and opposed to the law enforcement bodies[45]. The Automaidan protesters were taken into custody for two months selected as a preventive measure by the court[46].

Lots of actual or supposed protesters were illegally arrested in Kyiv and regions. They were often detained by the people out of uniform or “titushky”. Some people were kidnapped from hospitals, some — on their way home from Maidan or near their workplace. In the overwhelming majority of cases families were not informed of the protesters being taken to the district militia departments, and the lawyer’s access to their defendants was often restricted.

During all these winter months, despite low temperatures, Maidan Nezalezhnosti and adjacent territories were constantly attended by several tens of thousands of people whereas some thousands just lived there in the open air or in the buildings occupied by the protesters. On some days, in particular, at the weekend the amount of the protesters reached a million of people. At that time the so called “law on hostages” dated January 29, 2014 was taken. It stipulated that the detained protesters could be released only in exchange for vacating the streets and administrative building, i. e. actual termination of the protest.

Events of February 18

On this day, February 18, the parliament was supposed to vote for returning to the Constitution of Ukraine in the version of 2004, so in the morning the part of protesters peacefully went to the parliament only to be stopped by the cordon of the law enforcement officers. New clashes started upon militia provocations. The law enforcement bodies attacked tore down the barricades and commenced forceful assault on Maidan. They threw cocktail bombs at Maidan and set several tents on fire.

The central metro stations were closed, and vehicles were forbidden to drive to the city centre for the purpose of isolating protesters at Maidan. At the same time, the single television channel (5 Channel) which did not support the government was turned off, and movement of all kinds of transport, including private vehicles, from regions to Kyiv was restricted. Law enforcement officers were supported by paramilitary criminal groups (“titushky”) that were finishing off the people lying on the ground[47]. Protesters set the tyres on fire and started throwing cocktail bombs in response to stop law enforcement bodies and prevent them from shooting people from rooftops.

Attack against Maidan in the Night from February 18 to February 19
and Setting the Trade Unions Building on Fire

Euromaidan was under attack all the night from February 18 to February 19. Two armoured vehicles, one of which was stopped in Khreshchatyk, were going to be used to destroy the barricades whereas water cannons were applied to disperse protesters and extinguish burning tyres. Yet, being burnt to ashes, Maidan survived.

In the night from February 18 to February 19 the Trade Unions Building, which was used for providing maintenance supplies to Euromaidan, was set on fire. In particular, there was a hospital for ambulatory treatment of protesters. Combatants of the special police force “Alpha” broke into the building from the top floors, and the fire started[48]. At least two protesters burnt to death[49].

On February 19 the Head of the Security Service of Ukraine, O. Akymenko announced commencement of the anti-terrorist operation and issue of firearms[50]. On February 20, 2014 the Minister of Internal Affairs, V. Zakharchenko signed the decree on issuing combat weapons to the militiamen[51]. At the same time some law enforcement officers started to leave their positions without authorisation, refusing to apply weapons against unarmed people.

Mass Shooting at Maidan on February 20

At night on February 20 transit militia men blocked entrance of transport into the centre of Kyiv. In the morning combatants of the special police force “Berkut” started throwing cocktail bombs at the building of the conservatory where the new medical aid post of Maidan was located. Clashes commenced. Law enforcement officers started shooting from firearms[52]. The injured and killed protesters, including the ones trying to provide medical aid to the injured, were brought from the October Palace and Instytutska Street[53].

At the same time it was said that the trains ceased to go in the western direction due to the supposed disruption of the railroad bed. Journalists recorded sharpshooters in different administrative buildings in the governmental quarter[54]. The sharpshooters wearing black clothes with yellow stripes on their sleeves started shooting[55] at unarmed protesters, which was recorded in numerous videos[56]. In the late afternoon the work of metro in the city centre was resumed. At the same time in Dnipropetrovsk the people lay onto the railways and prevented the train with troopers from going to Kyiv. At 10:20 p.m. the parliament forbade the Special Forces to carry out the so called “anti-terrorist operation” at the territory of the country.

All the night from February 20 to February 21 the negotiations were held with participation of Yanukovych, opposition leaders and representatives of the European Union and Russia. On February 21 the opposition leaders and the President of Ukraine signed the agreement on resolving the crisis in Ukraine, but the protesters decisively rejected the agreement conditions offered by the opposition leaders and demanded resignation of the President. It was announced on February 22 that V. Yanukovych had escaped from Kyiv. Later he was found at the territory of Russia.

Repressing “Local Euromaidans” in Regions

In 15 administrative territories of Ukraine out of 27 peaceful protests were of mass nature, in particular, in the Regions of Vinnytsia, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zhytomyr, Zaporizhzhia, Luhansk, Lviv, Odesa, Poltava, Sumy, Ternopil, Kharkiv, Cherkasy, and the City of Kyiv. In majority of these regions the authorities attempted to forcefully suppress the peaceful protest by both legal and illegal means. Some protesters in the regions were injured, beaten and tortured. Some of them were arrested and accused of having organised mass riots and opposed to the law enforcement officers, and the preventive measures later selected by courts included wearing a tracking device, home arrest, two-month custody etc.

The entire range of possible tools of the state system was used to fight the protesters: travesty of justice banning to hold protest campaigns, discrimination decisions of local authorities aimed at Euromaidan participants, officials’ illegal actions, including beating, tortures, illegal detention etc.

One of the examples was violent beating of peaceful protesters in Dnipropetrovsk on January 26, 2014[57]. The protesters at the meeting which was attended by at least five thousand people were attacked by the law enforcement officers and “titushky”. The protesters were beaten with rubber truncheons and thrown to the grounds where they were finished off. Dozens of protesters were wounded from traumatic weapons. Several dozens of people, including ordinary passers-by who were believed to look like protesters by the law enforcement officers and “titushky”, were detained. The people with video cameras were also detained on purpose.

On January 24, 2014 during the protest campaign in Cherkasy approximately 47 people, at least five of whom were of minor age, were detained. People were beaten although they did not oppose to being detained. The children’s parents were not informed of their detention, and the lawyers’ access to their defendants was restricted. Also, the law enforcement officers detained the people who did not participate in the protest and were just passing by, including student Vladyslav Kompaniiets[58]. Despite the fact that the young man had been disabled since childhood and needed strict compliance with the special dietary regime, the court took a decision to select a preventive measure in the form of two-month custody.

The organisers of local Euromaidans were individually repressed in the regions, in particular, by means of framed-up criminal cases. Thus, criminal proceedings were opened against local deputies and public activists in Lutsk on grounds of the fact that Viktor Yanukovych’s portrait had been standing upside down during the meeting. On December 17, 2013 the court selected the preventive measure in the form of the home arrest for the activist of Lutsk Euromaidan, Maiia Moskvych[59]. The same applied to the activists from Kalush for having burnt the portrait of Viktor Yanukovych: the criminal case was opened for hooliganism.

On December 31, 2013 the law enforcement officers stopped an activist of Donetsk Euromaidan, Yevhen Nasadiuk in the street and pulled him into the car for being interrogated in connection with being suspected of child sexual abuse. The activist of Kharkiv Euromaidan, Oleksandr Chyzov found himself in the similar situation when on January 4, 2014 he was violently detained by five people out of uniform right in the street and taken to the district militia department. The activist was accused of porno-peddling[60].

There were numerous cases of violence against organisers and leaders of local Euromaidans. Thus, in December 24, 2013 in the very centre of Kharkiv two unknown people attacked one of the co-organisers of Kharkiv Euromaidan, Dmytro Pylypets[61]. In the course of the attack he was knifed four times.

In addition to Kyiv[62], peaceful protesters were killed in the western, central and south-eastern parts of Ukraine, in particular, in the Cities of Khmelnytskyi, Lviv, Regions of Cherkasy and Zaporizhzhia. In the aggregate, eight people were killed out of Kyiv.

Conclusions

The protest movement of Euromaidan was grounded on the values of freedom and human honour, so the protest can be described as one of the largest human rights defence movements at the entire territory of new independent countries which were formed after dissolution of the Soviet Union. The slogan “Human Rights Above All” was first chanted next to the court building at the beginning of December 2013 when the protesters accused of crimes, so called “prisoners of Bankova” were brought there. That is why the protest movement was later called the Revolution of Dignity.

Euromaidan was organised by ordinary people of different age, sex, profession, financial standing, social background, place of residence, regional beliefs, ideological views etc. The amount of protesters reached approximately two million people, according to different estimates. The protest infrastructure was provided for by about five million people who established various self-organised volunteer initiatives and helped the injured, provided protesters with the necessary things and food, free legal assistance and organised free transportation from regions to Kyiv etc.

The peaceful protest movement covered the entire country, and local Euromaidans were held in different communities. Protests were of mass nature in the Regions of Vinnytsia, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zhytomyr, Zaporizhzhia, Luhansk, Lviv, Odesa, Poltava, Sumy, Ternopil, Kharkiv, and Cherkasy. The one-person protest of the citizen of Smila who spent many days standing at the only square of the town with the poster “Maidan! I am with you” has become well known[63].

The entire range of pressure tools was gradually used by the authoritarian rule to scare the peaceful protesters and suppress the peaceful protest: destruction of property, beating, kidnapping, illegal detention, commencement of framed-up administrative and criminal cases, custodial placement etc. Understanding ineffectiveness of their actions, the government attempted to forcefully disperse Maidan and massively shoot unarmed people.

President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych and his Administration, the highest officials, heads of law enforcement bodies and special police forces and judges are responsible for large-scale and systematic attacks and crimes committed in their context. In addition, the government organised, supported and financed paramilitary groups to scare and attack protesters, destroy their property and provoke them.

Recommendations

1. For Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine — to immediately pass the resolution No. 1312 dated 09.12.2014 “On Ukraine Accepting Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court Regarding the Situation that Has Arisen as a Result of the Armed Aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine since February 27, 2014 and Committing International Crimes at the Territory of Ukraine”. Before that — to amend clause 1 thereof and stipulate the term of this resort as of February 23, 2014 until direct ratification of the Rome Statute by Ukraine.

2. For Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine — to pass the draft law No. 1788 dated 16.01.2015 which provides for adding the following provision to article 124 of the Constitution of Ukraine: “Ukraine may accept jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court on conditions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”.

3. For the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine — to amend section 20 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine “Crimes against Peace, Human Security and International Legal Order” for the purpose of bringing its provisions with into compliance with the provisions of the international criminal law.

[1] The Section has been prepared by O. Matviichuk, chairman of the board of the Centre for Civil Liberties.

[2] http://helsinki.org.ua/index.php?r=1.4.1.7

[3] http://helsinki.org.ua/index.php?r=1.4.1.8

[4] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-NvkVMD0dQQ

[5] www.pravda.com.ua

[6] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btovIwlp-uM

[7] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0DDxOyfjbE

[8] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XMBD0pLMz80

[9] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIpt67TToaI

[10] euromaidansos.org

[11] 24tv.ua

[12] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRtBJNYwUIw

[13] comments.ua

[14] news.bigmir.net

[15] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eOIvn91Atw

[16] job-sbu.org

[17] baltija.eu

[18] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMDAhx-m7Bw

[19] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RL8IU3TQeYA

[20] http://www.radiosvoboda.org/media/video/25233811.html

[21] www.telekritika.ua

[22] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMdk1D1ktBw

[23] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6NeJfnvbFHE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P6_XDSBgKVc

[24] https://www.facebook.com/EvromaidanSOS?pnref=lhc

[25] www.pravda.com.ua

[26] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dI2HYBfgXY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vv5jFjwyoJU

[27] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSf3Nbycy08

[28] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Qll2bKC8OI

[29] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaWCh_pQcHs

[30] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7MFPzLMH7E

[31] tsn.ua

[32] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuaJK1fUcxY

[33] www.cvu.com.ua

[34] www.pravda.com.ua

[35] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSsFIogHSbs

[36] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wdjIjs8Y44; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1nzzO5Vbfg

[37] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4uUPRAywrE

[38] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WxJKfN_d1M

[39] censor.net.ua

[40] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAu8lKEHbqM

[41] http://imi.org.ua/analytics/42777-spisok-postrajdalih-jurnalistiv-pid-chas-sutichok-19–20-sichnya-ono vlyuetsya.html

[42] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkuH9PK_lCY

[43] www.redcross.org.ua

[44] ua.comments.ua

ukr.lb.ua

[45] www.pravda.com.ua

[46] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_y2fwWwyrU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMDPSOdtoos

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4jzRk2OCX0

[47] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hYvM_aIc4Y; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3rQARCBNaWs

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6jplruDVyqk

[48] www.moskal.in.ua

[49] espreso.tv

[50] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_fiBUBxI2s

[51] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMDAhx-m7Bw

[52] Video footage “114V200214” (see Roadmap Evidence #51)

[53] texty.org.ua

[54] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CvtP7mgHsMY; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqlSuBI1tzI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsE7lYVa5kk/

[55] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17ZN5BLLawc

[56] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6IbEIBhb8o

[57] http://www.newsru.ua/data/video/4138.html

[58] http://www.bbc.co.uk/ukrainian/news/2014/01/140125_cherkasy_conveyer_courts

[59] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-3TzRrwmQs

[60] http://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2014/01/4/7009032/

[61] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teQ0Pi-gwv4

[62] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mqeuYRsF2eI

[63] http://life.pravda.com.ua/society/2013/12/17/146059/