XII. Right to labour
The right to labour lodged to the group of social-economic rights is one of fundamental human right that allows access opportunity to the sources of satisfying the requirements of themselves and their families, personal fulfillment and self-expression. Since independence In Ukraine there were serious problems with the provision of this right, because the actions of the state in this direction have mainly situational character and not been able to solve problems that have been accumulated for a long time in the field of labor rights. The situation became strained with new challenges of 2014, which in the first place should include a large number of internally displaced persons who lost their jobs and stable salaries to. Significant remain the problems to ensure decent working conditions in the first place — in the public sector. The salary continues to occupy not the main place in the structure of Ukrainian revenues, and its minimum level does not allow talking about the fact that it makes it possible to cover even the minimum requirements. The problems related to with salary arrears are worsening. The problems in compliance with the right on safe working conditions remain acute, taking into account the outdated list of occupational diseases and especially — the constant practice of unofficial employment.
In spite of long-standing needs to strengthen the protection of all categories of migrant employees, Ukraine until now has not ratified the necessary international conventions in this sphere, not mentioning the ineffective government actions towards protecting the rights of this category of employees. The government policies remain also ineffective regarding activity of trade unions; as a result, they do not play an effective defender of labor rights.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) predicted that in the next five years the ranks of the unemployed people would increase to 3 million in the year, if some economic cataclysms not happen. Unfortunately, Ukraine is not aside of those global trends, so the number of unemployed is growing. Also this is facilitated by the difficult economic situation in Ukraine and the presence of large numbers of internally displaced persons from the occupied territories.
According to the latest data released by the State statistics service of Ukraine the unemployment rate of population aged 15–70 years, defined by the methodology of the International Labour Organization in Ukraine, grew up on average 7.6% with in the first half of 2013 to 8.6% in the first half of the year 2014 of economically active population. The problem of youth unemployment gain particular actuality for today. Only the universities are producing annually more than 500 000 professionals who can’t find a job. According to the International Labour Organization youth unemployment reached a record of 12.7% in 2012. In Ukraine the youth unemployment rate is 11%, which is above the national average (7.5%).
One importance sign of employment questions is increasing of frequent recourse to the Government “hot line”, which also helps to solve issues of employment. Analysis of calls to the hotline in the 2013–2014 show that the number of calls of citizens for help in searching of job, employment, information on the functioning of the employment centers increased in 2014. Many of those who sought help in finding work, were released because of staffing reduction, changes in the Organization of production and suchlike.
If talking about unemployment assistance, its minimum rate increased from 76.9% to 80% of the minimum subsistence level in 2014, but was only 544 UAH that does not meet even the minimum needs of the person and is the lowest of the minimum standards established by the State.
Among major problems are the problems of the employment of the disadvantaged or under-protected persons: those who served their sentences and were released from prison due to lack of efficient mechanisms of resocialization in our State; single mothers who could not find a job with flexible working time for reasons of child care; invalids and suchlike.
Among the new problems is mass exodus of Lugansk and Donetsk regions without the documents needed to obtain the status of unemployed. For that matter the State amended the legislation to resolve this difficult situation. In 2014 also arose the problem with persons who migrated from the temporarily occupied territory of Crimea and left work, but do not have the employment record or other documents confirming periods of employment. Only at the end of August 2014 it was simplified the registration procedures and these people have been registered as unemployed on the basis of available documents. Unemployment benefit will be paid at the minimum rate (UAH 554 mentioned above) before obtaining of documents and information on periods of employment, salaries (income) and qualifying period.
Also some employment features of health care employees, which are moving from the ATO, in the absence of certain documents required for employment. In this case the State determined that the information could be used from automated data base of medical, pharmaceutical and scientific-pedagogical employees, functioning in the field of health care (letter of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated on 20.08.2014 No. 11-02/10-09-65/24419 and the joint letter of the Ministry of Social Policy and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated on 30.09.2014 No. 11143/0/4/026, No. 11.02-13/23/28325).
The growth of unemployment among the population was raised in recent times, in particular, by internal political reforms. For example, the adoption of the new Tax Code contributed to restricting the rights of small businesses to pay the single tax and labor recruitment. The new pension reform deprived the working pensioners the incentives to work and contributed to their partial leakage from the labor market. The consequents of unemployed number rising and exit of working pensioners from the market will certainly have a negative impact on this reform in the future. The labor market situation will become even more serious, because it will be filled up with people whom have been extended the working-age on the one hand. On the other — with youth, this is ready to enter the labor market and constantly suffers from the lack of job opportunities. Therefore, the load on one free workplace in the near future will be growing. If the government does not take measures to improve the quality of employment, the output of the crisis will be delayed, as the majority of the employable population will choose not the part-time low- salary employment, but an unemployment benefits and additional alternative part-time work.
As a conclusion it can be noted that the problems of unemployment and employment in Ukraine are enough and they stably exist. Moreover, solving one problem (employment of persons from the occupied territories), other problems are going by the wayside (employment of single mothers, the resocialization of persons who have served their sentences).
3. Assurance of decent working conditions
First of all we should mention that salaries continue to occupy only 40% of the income, while 60% make pensions, stipends and social allowances. This is an anxious because the population earns only 40%, residue — pensions, stipends and social allowances
Earnings profile of population in Ukraine
To ensure decent working conditions, it is important to note that the cost of living in 2014 was set below the actual rate of the factual living salary in December of 2013. Also, the minimum salary left at the level of even smaller than the actual rate of it in 2013. In general, the minimum salary can not be considered economically justifiable. Despite the fact that minimal salaries are the state social guarantee, its legislative level is insufficient for providing extended restitution of labor power, since it does not take into account the family (the living costs and and child-rearing expenses) and tax components (premiums for obligatory state social insurance and individual income tax)5. Since the 1st January 2014 the minimum salary was set at $1,218 UAH that makes up 38.7% of the average salary for the previous year (3148 UAH.), in US dollars ($1/7.99 USD.) It allowed spending in January $4.9 per day on average per one person (threshold — $5.0 US by purchasing power parity per day). The trade unions are insisting the minimum salary should not be less than 45% of the average for the previous period (3265 UAH in 2013), that is — 1470 UAH. The International Labour Organization believe that it should not be less than 60% of the average monthly salary.
However, almost half of the population receives a salary up to 2500 UAH. That shows the inequality of salary distribution of citizens, when majority of citizens gain an income which do not allow for ensuring of adequate living conditions.
The distribution of employees number
by salary rate accounted for June 2014 (cumulatively)
In addition, even far from everyone employee can get the minimum salaries. Despite the legal prohibition of salaries payment at the rate less than the minimum salary, according to the State Statistics Committee, from 9524.1 thousand full-time employees have worked 50% and more of working hours, 0,480,000 people (5.0%) had a charge of less than the appropriate minimum level as of December 2013.
Unsolved problems remain the payment for labor of state employees, which is associated with impaired functioning of the Unified salary tariff system being used to determine the salary rate. It should be noted that unified salary tariff system is also important for salaries accounting of state employees, as the multiplication table — for calculations in mathematics. Each position belongs to a particular category. And for each category there is also fixed salary rate. It is precisely a ground for
Salaries accounting for each state employees. All depends on the lowest level of the salary tariff system — the first category salary. All calculations of the higher categories are made by multiplying it by a specific tariff rate. And in accordance with legislation (Article 6 of the Law “On Salary” and Article 96 of the Labour Code), the salary rate of the first tariff level exceed the minimum salary rate statutorily prescribed.”
But the real situation is other. The government voted that this salary is tied not to the minimum salary, but to the amount of 852 USD. And in spite of some suits being prosecuted on the recognition illegal of this decision, the situation remains without changes.
The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Social Policy noted that this rule concern only the production sector enterprises, and the implementation of law provisions for all is too expensive for the State: “Determining the salary rate for an employee of the first tariff category on the minimum salary level in 2014... requires additional labor costs for the state employees in the amount of more than 51 billion USD..., non-inflationary sources of its covering are absent”.
Accordingly, in the Law “On the State Budget of Ukraine for 2014” this year has not been settled the correspondence salary law of the first tariff category of the minimum salary.
A difficult situation with salaries is getting more complicated by common cases of salary arrears.
The chairman of Federation of Trade Unions of Ukraine G. Osovy noted that such shameful phenomenon as salary arrears has not been overcaming a long time, which total amount increased by 1.8 times on the 1st of September 2014 and has reached 1 billion 424 million UAH, and the number of employees who do not get salary in time has doubled. Practically it is equal to the average statistical region of Ukraine, where the empoyees do not get salary at all. According to the data of trade union activists, the employers have violated the right only in the first half year more than 700 000 times, “which is twice as much in all the year 2013”.
As an example of the situation with debts can be given the situation of OJSC “Lviv Coal Company”. According to the information of Confederation of Free Trade Unions of Ukraine, the company had arrears in salaries at the enterprise, which exceeded of 10 million UAH with the necessary charges. At the same time the numerous appeals of trade union of this enterprise did not yield any results other than audits of the trade union organization itself.
Unfortunately, the employers avoid often liability for unpayment of salary in Ukraine, as the situation with ex-employees of the company-bankrupt “Aerosvit” demonstrates, which even the government agencies do not help to solve the reimbursement of salary arrears.
This situation shows how necessary is the legislative definition of additional state guarantees for employees in case of insolvency of an employer. And here it should be noted that the failure of the Law of Ukraine “On Protection of monetary claims of employees in case of bankruptcy of an employer”, the darft of which has been developing since 2004, is one of the reasons that makes it impossible to solve the debt redemption of salaries to employees of bankrupt enterprises.
4. Guaranteeing of labor safety
The Article 43 of Constitution of Ukraine: “Everyone has a right to proper, safe and healthy working conditions, salary not below of established by law.”
Having joined the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 1966, Ukraine recognized the right of everyone to just and favorable conditions of work, including working conditions that meet safety and hygiene requirements. In addition Ukraine ratified the International Labour Organization Convention so committed itself to develop and improve a national policy in occupational safety and health, to develop a national system of occupational safety and health, to carry out a national program on occupational safety and health.
According to the data of Social Industrial Accident and Diseases Insurance in Ukraine 3736 victims of industrial accident have been registered in the I half of the year 2014 (of which 241 — deadly). On the one hand, comparing with the data for the same reporting period in 2013 the figure of injuries decreased by 14.3%, and fatal injury by 0.8%. On the other hand, failure to comply with regulations on labor protection was the cause of injury in 57% of cases. Thus the deficiencies of the liability system for violation of occupational safety regulation of both employees and employers resulting in the majority of cases of injury in the workplace.
For I half of the year 2014 about 100 000 violations of labor savety legislation has been detected by insurance experts in labor savety, as noted S.Tarovik, head of the organization of preventive measures and insurance expertise of Social Industrial Accident and Diseases Insurance in Ukraine. However, not only the employers are ignoring the instructions for safety, but also the employees themselves. So, on the 27th of January 2014 young man died being failed from the 9th floor in Sevastopol. It turned out that the citizen was not an employee of the construction company, and it has been working as an assistant. Another incident occurred in February in Khartsizk when several people have been taken to a hospital with burns and poisoning, they confessed that they have been working illegally at the mine, which is officially closed. After accident the person expecting for a conpensation, but the management of the mine did not recognize the fact of labor relations with these victims.
According to research of one of the Internet portals related to employment today every fifth office employee gets salary in an”envelope” that is, is working unofficial. Thus, they deliberately release an employer from an obligation to ensure proper working conditions and compromise themselves for occupational disease or injury without the possibility of obtaining a compensation and guarantees from the government. Meanwhile, about 12 000 people a year have been injured or have occupational diseases due to neglect of safety rules and are not able to receive their financial aid, according to information of deputy director of Federation of Trade Unions of Ukraine S. Ukrainets. Thus, the system deficiencies of bringing to responsibility for labor safety rules violation and imperfection of the system of labor relations is resulting in a significant number of violations of right to labor safety.
Director of the company where they have been working, have already been broght to criminally responsible for the deaths of three employees due to negligence or improper safety three years ago. The facts of accident detecting are widespread. For example, a citizen in Volyn was seeking legal redress in court after he was being injured in the workplace 10 years ago, but he has received a certificate that he was injured on the way home. A man does not argue with an employer, but his health was worse every year because of the injury and he decided to go to the court to establish the fact of injury in the workplace.
The employers neglect also labor safety in cases of overloaded employees. Despite official established eight-hour shift, majority of citizens are working in fact more than 8 hours. Thus, according to the results of a sociological survey, one in three people in Ukraine is working regularly on weekends. The studies show that the higher the position of an employee, than more he is working — about 9, 10 hours per day. In 75% of cases the employees are working above the norm on their own volition for the purpose of career development, and the employers not restrict them in their choice Meanwhile, “American Journal of Industrial Medicine” has published the results of long-term studies the impact of irregular working hours on human health. The studies have shown that the more hours a person is working a week, the higher is probability that he will be down with coronary heart disease.
Guarantees for occupational diseases that may arise, are no less important. World statistics is showing that 2 020 000 people per year are deading from occupational diseases, than is much more than from accidents — 320 000. In Ukraine 2665 occupational diseases have been registered in according to the data of Fund for the I half of the year 2014. However, because of significant number of employees being worked unofficial and this figure can not be considered objective in small business. Thus the mentioned examples confirmed that the state control on the following of labor safety instructions is not effective in many cases. The second issue is the current list of occupational diseases. Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Approval of the list of occupational diseases” has been taken on the 8th of November 2000. For 14 years the list has been not updated. In this time a lot of trends in diseases have been found by Ukrainian and international scholars, developing in representatives of various professions. So, the International Labour Organization included in the list of occupational diseases mental disorder and behavior, post-traumatic stress disorder in 2010. Belgium, Germany, Grenada, Egypt, Canada, China, India, Italy, Mexico, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are updating their lists by means of International Labour Organization. In Ukraine the lists narrowed and outdated range of diseases established by the law is leading to the problems associating with recognition of occupational disease.
5. Labor rights savety of migrant employees
According to official statistics there were more than 52 million people in Ukraine in 1993. Thus is leaving officially circa 45 500 000 people far in Ukraine. In such a way population has decreased at 6 500 000 people in 20 years. Not least of all the population of Ukraine is reducing due to migration.
More guest employees from Ukraine are working in neighboring countries — Russia and Poland, besides a large number of Ukrainian left for work searching in Italy, the Czech Republic, Spain, Portugal and other European countries.
Generally the migrant employees from Ukraine are in the worst position compared with the local population abroad. It concerns both the salary level and labor rights. Considerable number of Ukrainian employees is working officially, but a large number of migrant employees is working unofficially, and as a result have various oppressions of their rights.
It should be noted that despite the presence of some of ratified international conventions relating to the rights of migrant employees, Ukraine could not adopt such important international instruments such as the Convention of the International Labour Organization (ILO) No. 97 dated 07.01.1949 “On Migrant Employees“ and Convention ILO number No. 143 dated 24.06.1975 “On Migration Abuse and the Promotion of migrant employees equal opportunities and equal treatment”. These Conventions are especially for protecting the rights of migrant employers being not officially registered.
There are also the problems with accounting of the migrant employees, so that the State Statistics Service and the State Migration Service of Ukraine are using other figures than international and public organizations. At that the data is always significantly different. These differences are partly explained by different criteria of processes evaluating, various methods of working and tasks. However without exaggeration it can be said without prejudice that there are millions of labor migrants from Ukraine all over the world.
On this evidence is at least irresponsible position of Ukraine concerning the ratification of the Convention. True is the rights safety of migrant employees at the international level executing also at the level of bilateral interstate agreements. However similiar agreements having been signed recently by Ukraine can be counted on the fingers of one hand.
The policy of our State in relation to foreign Ukrainian heritage is still unclear as in previous years. Ukrainians have been waiting for passports at consulates for six months, but it do not give them an opportunity to obtain official employment abroad. There is a risk that more than 700 000 Ukrainian employees will be in a difficult situation in the Russian Federation because of an Association agreement with the EU. About wide-spread discrimination against ethnic minorities in employment settings in the Russian Federation said Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Ukraine.
In accordance with Article 92 of the Constitution of Ukraine the regulation bases of migration processes are determined exclusively by the laws of Ukraine. For providing a wide integrated approach to safety the rights of Ukrainian migrant employees must be adopted a law that will fully settle the legal status of citizens employed abroad.
At the press conference in Kiev in 2013 it was announced the need in adopting the Law of Ukraine “On external labor migration” in text of the recommendations made by the organizations of foreign Ukrainians before the parliamentary hearings on labor migration, in which it has to be assigned the status of Ukrainian labor migrants and memebers of their families, social-economic, educational, cultural and other guarantees for them. At the end of 2014 the Law of Ukraine “On external labor migration” is still being in draft form.
For a balanced approach to the management of labor migration requires also the development of national migration policies and a plan of concrete actions in practice. The migration policy can be effective only under condition of actions coordination. It should taking into account the interests of all participants of the migration process: state, employers and employees of the host country, migrant employees and members of their families. An important element of migration policy should be: monitoring and studing of migration situation not only of their own regions of country and the world at large; the existence of mechanisms of interstate dialogue and cooperation between the states on mutual employment of foreign residents.
For the rights defense of migrant employees and their families have to be developed the effective management tools of labor migration processes in a modern globalized world, common approaches and strategies, coordination and mobilization of human resources. We need to develop legislation based on human rights, the recognition of international labor standards, humanity of laws and the promotion of interethnic respect, that is a guarantee of social peace and democracy.
6. Assurance of trade unions rights
The monitoring being held by the Federation of Trade Unions of Ukraine constitutes a violation of trade unions rights, in particular the continuing violations of International Labour Organization conventions number No. 87 On freedom of association and right defense on organisation, No. 98 On principles operation of the right on organisation and conducting of collective negotiations, No. 135 On right defense of representatives and opportunities being available to them, No. 154 On the promotion to the collective negotiations, of Article 36 of the Constitution of Ukraine, of the Law of Ukraine “On Trade Unions, their Rights and Guarantees” based on which the trade unions and their associations are independently organizeing its statutory activities, holding meetings, conferences, conventions, electing free their representatives, forming a program of actions.
One of the main violations of trade union rights in 2014 was puting pressure on the leaders and members of trade unions, the employers’ evasion of conducting of collective negotiations to conclude collective agreements. A large number of violations concerning the failure of employers obligations under collective agreements, as well as a violation of the right to strike.
One example of pressure on union leaders is a matter of Sir G.Orobeyko. In this matter, according to the datd of Confederation of Free Trade Unions of Ukraine, the free trade union of medical employees of Ukraine (FTUME) applied in many different instances for help regarding reinstatement of chairman of the primary trade union organization Public Institution of health safety “Regional Hospital — Center for Emergency Medical Aid and Disaster Medicine” of Kharkov state region organisation, a doctor of emergency medical aid Orobeyko Anna Sergeyevna, who was denied in transfering to the new organization — Public health institution “Center for Emergency Medical Aid and Disaster Medicine“.
Director of the above mantioned public institutions Sir Zabashta Viktor Fedorovych motivated the refusal in transfering of Sir Orobeyko S. to the new organization that she is bad and the most irresponsible employee. But the matter was that Anna is a person with active citizenship, can not be indifferent to violations of working conditions by medical employees and is a person, who is in an attempt in her activity to increase providing of emergency medical treatment to residents of the city of Kharkiv.
Sir Orobeyko S. together with Free Trade Union of Medical Employees of Ukraine widely highlighted the shortcomings and failures that have occurred in the ambulance service during the so-called reforming of the healthcare industry, as evidenced by by its numerous appeals to both the local executive, management of hospital where he is working, and also to the All-Ukrainian trade unions. And, accordingly, there is reason to evaluate these actions of the administration of the Center as a way of impacting on trade union activist.
The similar examples are the situation with the deliberate obstruction of trade union activities to the head of the Primary trade union “Independent Trade Union of employees in the private joint-stock company “Imperial Tobacco Production Ukraine” Stanevich E. M. consisting in his non-admission to the territory of the enterprise and the workplaces of members of the primary trade union and also an employee of “Our Ryaba” O.Chaykovskiy by creation and registration of the primary trade union at this enterprise.
There were a lot of cases when the employers have refrained from conducting of collective negotiations to conclude collective agreements. In particular, according to the data of Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Ukraine, such problems arosen in the Donetsk National University and OJSC “National Depository of Ukraine”.
The problems with assurance of trade unions rights to strike, particularly in sphere where one of the major violations of employees is in the transport sector and housing and communal services are still remaining. There is still conflict of law between the Law “On transport” and legislation on uncollective labor disputes.
It should be noted that on the 2nd of October 2014 the European Court of Human Rights on these issues was decided in the case of former employees of the company “Aerosvit” (“Tymoshenko and others v. Ukraine”), according which the Court declared an injunction against striking in violation of Article 11 of the Convention to.
It is important to be noted that the State has not still proved the trade union activities with adequate conditions, their rights defense. The legal mechanisms being oblighed to protect the trade unions and trade activists in particular, remain ineffective.
1. To increase the amount of unemployment benefits to the subsistence level size, and also making necessary changes to the legislation, which would determine the warranties of benefits getting at this level.
2. To take measures to reduce unemployment among the most vulnerable groups, especially young people, people of preretirement age, persons with disabilities, temporary displaced persons.
3. To increase the share of salary in GDP and production costs.
4. To harmonize the minimum salary in accordance with the requirements of the European Social Charter, as well as to introduce an effective mechanism of indexation of income.
5. To ensure the effective implementation and differentiation of costs of labour in public sector for using of Unified salary tariff system, to eliminate the practice of salary setting (regular rate of pay) of an employee of the first salary category at the rate of below a level established by law.
6. To take measures to improve payments for salary by government authority with purpose to improve social safety for employees, to eliminate the hidden salary system established by assigning different premiums and additional payments, being dependent more on loyalty to the leadership than on production.
7. To reduce the arrears of pay to the employees in the public sector, as well as to take measures aimed at arrears reducing at the enterprises and organizations of all forms of ownership.
8. To improve the labor safety system in order to reduce occupational accidents and diseases, including by improving the legislation in this area, as well as the implementation of prevention programs.
9. To improve the monitoring of compliance with the standards and requirements in the field of labor and health safety; to ensure prompt and effective investigation of injury cases.
10. To improve state control over observance of labor rights, creation of effective mechanisms for responding to these violations.
11. To conclude bilateral agreements in the field of employment and social protection of migrant employees with countries where is a significant number of our compatriots with purpose of employment and who are still not having such agreement.
12. To ratify necessary international instruments enhancing the of migrant employees safety in the shere of employment and social protection.
13. To ensure strict compliance with rights of trade union, to promote the development of strong independent trade union movement.
 Prepared by M. Shcherbatyuk (UHHRU)
 State Statistics Service
 The government allowed to the emigrators to be registered in the employment center at the place of temporary residence, and not only at place of residence — Resolution http://ua.interfax.com.ua/news/general/222045.html
 State statistic committee: Ukrainian income consist 60% of social payments http://economics.unian.ua/soc/ 877514-derjstat-dohodi-ukrajintsiv-na-60-skladayutsya-z-sotsviplat.html
 Ensuring of social justice http://psv.org.ua/arts/Spetcvipusk/view-1443.html
 Monitoring of situation in the social sphere in Ukraine for April 2014 #_ftn2
 In salary tariff system, or Why high school teacher is being at law with the Cabinet of Ministry http://gazeta.dt.ua/EDUCATION/u-tenetah-tarifnoyi-sitki-_.html
 Monitoring the situation in the social sphere in Ukraine for April 2014 //
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 The state does not solve the question of debt redemption from a salary of ex- employee of “Aerosvit” — trade union http://ua.interfax.com.ua/news/general/227563.html
 Draft Law of Ukraine “On Protection of monetary claims of employees in case of bankruptcy of an employer”
 International Labour Organization Conventions ratified by Ukraine //
 Analysis of insurance of industrial accidents and occupational diseases for the I half of the year 2014 //
 Komsomolskaya Pravda, “Do you have accidents? And do not have!” //
 During construction working in Sevastopol died a stone setter //
http://gazeta.sebastopol.ua/2014 / 01/29 / na-strojke-v-sevastopole-pogib-kamenschik
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 Every third employee Ukrainian receives a salary in an envelope — Correspondent
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 In Volyn an accident has been investigating by State Committee for Industrial Safety, Labour Protection and Mining Supervision 10 years ago //
 87% of Ukrainians are working above quota //
 Scientists have discovered what the consequences for health causes irregular work schedule //
http: // www. apteka.ua/article/306750 prevention of occupational diseases
 Occupational diseases prevention //
 Comment of Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Ukraine concerning rights violations of the national minorities in the Russian Federation
 “Our Ryaba “deals with independent trade union activists? #sthash.SRTGNG3R.dpuf
 Former employees of Aerosvit won the European Court in Ukraine //